Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis prognosis

Long-term prognosis of membranoproliferative

Long-term prognosis of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I. Significance of clinical and morphological parameters: an investigation of 220 cases Nephron . 1990;55(3):242-50. doi: 10.1159/000185969 Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), also known as mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, is a pattern of glomerular injury viewed by light microscopy. Its name is derived from the characteristic histologic changes, including hypercellularity and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, that often lead to a lobular appearance.

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: Treatment and

  1. What is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis? Many diseases can affect your kidney function by attacking and damaging the glomeruli, the tiny filtering units inside your kidney where blood is cleaned. The conditions that affect your glomeruli are called glomerular diseases
  2. Prognosis is good if a condition causing secondary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is successfully treated. Idiopathic type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis often progresses slowly; type II progresses more rapidly. In general, the long-term prognosis is poor
  3. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a chronic progressive kidney disorder characterized by glomerular capillary wall structural changes and mesangial cell proliferation leading to nephrotic syndrome, hypocomplementemia, hypertension, proteinuria and end-stage kidney disease
  4. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a kidney disorder that involves inflammation and changes to kidney cells. It may lead to kidney failure
  5. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a pattern of glomerular injury on kidney biopsy with characteristic light microscopic changes, including hypercellularity and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). MPGN is a histologic lesion and not a specific disease entity
  6. Membranoproliferative GN represents a pattern of injury seen on light microscopy. Historically, findings on electron microscopy have been used to further subclassify this pathologic entity. Recent advances in understanding of the underlying pathobiology have led to a proposed classification scheme based on immunofluorescence findings
  7. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I is a kidney disorder that results in disrupted kidney function, caused by inflammation and changes in the microscopic structure of kidney cells. A kidney biopsy confirms the diagnosis of membranoproliferative GN I. Treatment Treatment may vary according to the symptoms. The goals of treatment.
Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis and C3

Membranoproliferative nephritis is one of a group of conditions called glomerulonephritis, where the immune system damages the kidney. People use slightly different names for the same condition. Membranoproliferative is the same as mesangiocapillary. nephropathy, nephritis or glomerulonephritis are all used, but they all mean the same Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a specific type of glomerular disease that occurs when the body's immune system functions abnormally. The immune system, which is responsible for fighting disease, begins to attack healthy cells in the kidney, destroying the function of the filtering units of the kidney Type II MPGN is associated with a worse prognosis, as is the presence of chronic interstitial damage on renal biopsy. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis may recur in renal transplant recipients with a frequency of 20-30% for type I and 80-90% for type II

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis National Kidney

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis - Genitourinary

Definition Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a pattern of glomerular injury that is caused by an immune-mediated reaction. The disease process involves thickening of the glomerular basement membranes and proliferative changes, including hypercellularity of the glomerulus and increased mesangial matrix Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), or mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (GN), is characterized by diffuse proliferative lesions and widening of the capillary loops, often with a double-contoured appearance. MPGN may be idiopathic or secondary to chronic infections, cryoglobulinemia, or systemic autoimmune disorders that result. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, also called mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, is an uncommon cause of glomerular injury with characteristic light microscopic changes. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Genetic and

Glomerulonephritis signs and symptoms include: Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria) Foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria) High blood pressure (hypertension) Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is an immune response that deposits antibodies in the glomerular basement membrane of the kidneys disrupting the ability of the membrane to properly filter blood and form urine. Common symptoms reported by people with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Common symptoms. How bad it is. What people.

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: MedlinePlus

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a lesion caused by subendothelial immune complex deposits. Patients are typically children or young adults, or older adults with chronic infections, and usually present with mixed nephrotic/nephritic syndrome, and decreased complement C3. The lesion is characterized by mesangial and endocapillary proliferation and double contours of the. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a condition that affects the kidneys. Many experts consider it a variant of minimal change disease, but some experts believe it is a separate condition.It may present with nephrotic syndrome, which is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine (proteinuria), low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN also called mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis) is a 'lesion' not a 'disease'. As such, the discovery of the 'lesion' of MPGN in a renal biopsy is the start of an exploratory process leading to a diagnosis, not an end in itself Box 2. Differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis Poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis IgA nephropathies IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease) Henoch-Sch.. onlein Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Idiopathic—types I, II, III Secondary—nephritis of chronic bacteremia, hepatitis B and C, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, etc. C1q.

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli. The glomeruli of the kidney help filter wastes and fluids from the blood to form urine. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a form of glomerulonephritis caused by an abnormal immune response.Deposits of antibodies build up in a part of the kidneys called the glomerular basement membrane Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a form of glomerulonephritis caused by an abnormal immune response. Deposits of antibodies build up in a part of the kidneys called the glomerular basement membrane. This membrane helps filter wastes and extra fluids from the blood. Damage to this membrane affects the kidney's ability to create. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a relatively uncommon inflammatory glomerulopathy that can cause chronic nephritis. Based on the histological pattern of glomerular i njury it has been described as a chronic kidney disease found mostly in children and young adults

Pathology Outlines - Membranoproliferative


Agnes B. Fogo. Introduction/Clinical Setting. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) refers to a pattern of injury characterized by diffuse mesangial expansion due to endocapillary proliferation and increased mesangial matrix, and thickened capillary walls, often with a split tram-track appearance (1,2). The immune complexes may be undefined in terms of the inciting antigen. Abstract. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), also called mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, is a complex and uncommon cause of glomerular disease. Its name describes the most relevant histological characteristics of this entity: thickening of glomerular basement membrane due to immune complexes deposition and cell proliferation. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) has been classified based on its pathogenesis into immune complex-mediated and complement-mediated MPGN. The immune complex-mediated type is secondary to chronic infections, autoimmune diseases or monoclonal gammopathy. There is a paucity of data on MPGN associated with autoimmune diseases of MPGN. Secondly we review the clinical presentation of MPGN, its prognosis and therapeutic considerations. 2. Pathological features of MPGN The name membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis derives from the light microscopic glomerular histologic pattern. MPGN is synonymous with mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis Alerts and Notices Synopsis An uncommon cause of chronic nephropathy that affects children and adults. Patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) present with hematuria, dysmorphic red blood cells or red blood cells casts, varying degrees of proteinuria, and elevation in serum creatinine

Update on Membranoproliferative GN American Society of

  1. ent in the.
  2. Glomerulonephritis is often part of a multisystem disorder. Oedema is a sign of severe or chronic disease. A renal biopsy is the test for definitive diagnosis, although it is not required in all patients. Treating the underlying disorder and managing hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and proteinuria..
  3. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a kidney disorder that involves inflammation and changes to kidney cells. It may lead to kidney failure. MPGN is a specific type of glomerular disease that occurs when the body's immune system functions abnormally. The immune system, which is responsible for fighting disease, begins to attack.
  4. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) causes inflammation (swelling) in the kidneys. Children with MPGN have blood and protein in their urine, and may have swelling in their body, especially around their face and legs. MPGN may lead to other complications, including high blood pressure (hypertension)

Membranoproliferative GN I - Health Diseases & Medical

Signs/Symptoms. Patients with glomerulopathy-associated drusen frequently remain asymptomatic. In a series of 23 patients with complement-mediated glomerulonephritis, nine patients and 17 eyes had retinal features related to the kidney disease but only five patients (22%) and six eyes (13%) had vision loss.[4 Glomerulonephritis is a group of diseases that injure the part of the kidney that filters blood (called glomeruli). Other terms you may hear used are nephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Glomerulonephritis can be acute or chronic. In some instances, you may recover on your own, and in others you need immediate treatment. Find information regarding symptoms, causes, treatment Diagnosis: Idiopathic Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis. When membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) was first delineated as a discrete clinico-pathological entity more than a half-century ago, most cases were regarded as idiopathic (or primary) in nature. Advances in analysis of pathogenetic mechanisms and etiologies. Differentiating Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis from other Diseases. Epidemiology and Demographics. Risk Factors. Screening. Natural History, Complications and Prognosis. Diagnosis Diagnostic Study of Choice. History and Symptoms. Physical Examination. Laboratory Findings. Electrocardiogram. Chest X Ray. CT. MRI. Echocardiography or. Prognosis, treatment and outcome of childhood mesangiocapillary (membranoproliferative) glomerulonephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004; 19(11):2769-77 (ISSN: 0931-0509

Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a condition in which changes in the structures of your kidney can cause swelling and inflammation. Read more about the symptoms and treatment options Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a distinctive form of chronic glomerulonephritis. We present the results of our 96 paediatric patients with MPGN, reporting the survival and factors affecting prognosis in these patients. There were 64 boys and 32 girls with an age range of 2-17 (mean 10.6±3.7) years

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Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a group of immune-mediated disorders characterised histologically by glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and proliferative changes on light microscopy. It should not be confused with membranous glomerulonephritis, a condition in which the basement. Glomerulonephritis is a serious illness that can stop your kidneys from functioning properly. Learn how this condition is diagnosed and treated Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a form of hypo-complementemic glomerulonephritis. This means that these patients generally have low serum C3 complement levels. Epidemiology. MPGN is a collection of morphologically related but pathogenically distinct disorders. As a result, true epidemologic information is difficult to come by Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a type of glomerulonephritis caused by deposits in the kidney glomerular mesangium and basement membrane (GBM) thickening, activating complement and damaging the glomeruli Other symptoms like haematuria, GFR reduction and hypertension may also occur. FSGS doesn't respond well to corticosteroids and commonly progresses into chronic glomerulonephritis. 50% of sufferers develop end-stage renal failure within 10 years. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

1 Introduction. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is characterized by the presence of mesangial hypercellularity, subendothelial deposition of immune complexes, and duplication of glomerular basement membrane. Currently, MPGN is classified as immune-complex-mediated and complement-mediated MPGN; immune-complex-mediated MPGN is secondary to chronic infection, autoimmune disorders. Electron microscopy confirmed the diagnosis of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis . We decided to restart methylprednisolone therapy 32 mg, which the patient continued for six months before it was progressively reduced until definitive suspension. The latest kidney function values show creatinine 2.5 mg/dL, proteinuria (100 mg/dl) The critical laboratory test that suggests the diagnosis of MPGN is hypocomplementemia—namely, reduced C3 and CH50 levels, which are confirmed in 80% to 90% of cases. The C4 and factor B levels are also low in approximately 40% of those with type I Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a form of glomerulonephritis caused by an abnormal immune response. Deposits of antibodies build up in a part of the kidneys called the glomerular basement membrane. This membrane helps filter wastes and extra fluids from the blood. Damage to this membrane affects the kidney's ability to.

What is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)? MPGN's a type of nephrotic syndrome that's split into type I, type II (dense deposit disease), and t.. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search damage on the initial biopsy is determinative for prognosis of childhood MPGN. If the patient receives high doses of steroid therapy in the early stages, their treatment is more likely to be successful. The effect of immunosuppressive treatment on MPGN is not clear. Keywords Adolescent, children, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. What is it? Glomerulonephritis is a medical term for a family of diseases involving damage to the glomeruli (the tiny filters in the kidney), usually caused by the body's immune system. There are many types of glomerulonephritis including: Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) IgA glomerulonephritis IgM glomerulonephritis Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (also called.

Go back to clinical information and images. Diagnosis: Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Type I. In our case the glomeruli appear enlarged and hypercellular, with an increase in mesangial cellularity and matrix; the mesangial matrix increase causes an exaggeration of lobular aspect, best seen in Figure 2; this feature has given rise to the alternative name of lobular glomerulonephritis Perform a kidney biopsy for definitive diagnosis of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Under light microscopy, the glomeruli are generally enlarged and hypercellular, with an increase in mesangial cellularity and matrix. Mesangial increase, when generalized throughout the glomeruli, causes an exaggeration of their lobular form (as. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a form of glomerulonephritis caused by an abnormal immune response. Deposits of antibodies build up in a part of the kidneys called the glomerular basement membrane. This membrane helps filter wastes and extra fluids from the blood. Immune response TABLE 2: Patients with recurrence of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I in renal transplant. Patients with recurrence were younger at diagnosis of MPGN (17.6±5.0 years vs. 22.99±9.64 years; P =0.037) and had low C3 more frequently than nonrecurrent patients (75% vs. 28.8%; P =0.01) ( Table 3 )

N05.5 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. Short description: Unsp nephritic syndrome w diffuse mesangiocap glomrlneph The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM N05.5 became effective on October 1, 2020 Management of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: titis C has been increasingly implicated as a cause of Evidence-basedrecommendations.Idiopathicmembranoproli-MPGN over the last five years [2-4], and the association ferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is one of the least com-of MPGN with HIV disease has also been described [5]. mon. Background and objectives: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis characterized by subendothelial and mesangial deposition of immune complexes. Autoimmune diseases and chronic infections, such as hepatitis C, are commonly recognized causes of MPGN; however, monoclonal gammopathy is a less widely recognized cause of MPGN Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a pattern of glomerular injury seen in varied disease conditions, and in itself does not refer to a specific disease entity. Previously it was classified according to the ultrastructural location of deposits as MPGN type I, II or III About glomerulonephritis Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a type of glomerulonephritis, a group of conditions that affect the kidneys. Inside the kidneys, there are many tiny filters called glomeruli. They help to remove extra water, salt and waste, which are passed out of the body as urine

Pathology of GlomerulonephritisUSMLE Step1 Renal Physiology Pathology - Medical Sciences

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) National

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a type of glomerular injury caused by immune-complex deposition on the luminal (subendothelial) surfaces of capillary walls and the resultant inflammatory response. Immune complex deposits are composed of mainly IgG and antigen. The source of the antigen is often suspected to be exogenous. The clinical, laboratory, and histological findings of 50 patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis are described. Three-quarters of the patients, who were mostly older children and young adults, presented clinically with a mixture of nephritic and nephrotic symptoms; the remaining quarter had no symptoms and were diagnosed after the discovery of proteinuria and. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a histological pattern of injury resulting from predominantly subendothelial and mesangial deposition of immunoglobulins or complement factors with subsequent inflammation and proliferation particularly of the glomerular basement membrane. Renal prognosis is usually determined by the degree. Definition, Etiology, PathogenesisTop. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is characterized by diffuse proliferation of the mesangium and thickening of the capillary walls. It is a rare disease, accounting for <10% of glomerular diseases. MPGN is classified on the basis of the underlying pathology into either immune complex-mediated MPGN or complement-mediated MPGN Reclassification of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: Identification of a new GN: C3GN. Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers.It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt.

198 Chapter 8: Idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis 200 Chapter 9: Infection-related glomerulonephritis 209 Chapter 10: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy 218 Chapter 11: Henoch-Scho¨nlein purpura nephritis 221 Chapter 12: Lupus nephritis 233 Chapter 13: Pauci-immune focal and segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis The prognostic factors, the outcome and the most favorable treatment regimen are not entirely known for children with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). MPGN is a rarely observed disease more prevalent in adolescents, so we aimed to review the clinical and histological properties, treatments and the outcome of our patients who. Pathologic evaluation also is useful for rapid diagnosis, for distinguishing primary renal diseases, and for determining disease severity. 58 In most cases, systemic diseases associated with glomerulonephritis are apparent from the clinical presentation, and serologic testing confirms the diagnosis. In some instances, however, the serologic. Symptoms of Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Download Here Free HealthCareMagic App to Ask a Doctor All the information, content and live chat provided on the site is intended to be for informational purposes only, and not a substitute for professional or medical advice IgA deficiency associated with glomerulonephritis is rare. In particular, there is no prior report regarding the association between IgA deficiency and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in children. Herein, we describe the case of a 5-year-old girl with selective IgA deficiency and MPGN. The patient presented with persisting urinary abnormality and hypocomplementemia following a.

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis - NephCure Kidney

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis denotes a pattern of injury that is similar, whether the disease is primary or not. Therefore, the histologic diagnosis of MPGN should initiate a search for secondary causes 2 . In older adults (>30 years), MPGN is frequently associated with cryoglobulinemia and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a pattern of glomerular injury defined by mesangial expansion, cellular proliferation and double contouring of glomerular basement membrane. It was historically classified according to the relationship of electron dense deposits to the glomerular basement membrane (type 1 - sub-endothelial, 2.

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephriti

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a kidney disorder that involves inflammation and changes to kidney cells. It may lead to kidney failure. You develop new symptoms, including decreased urine output; Prevention. Preventing infections such as hepatitis or managing diseases such as lupus may help prevent MPGN There are three distinct patterns of complement activation in the three types of Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. • In type I disease, the process is initiated by immune complex deposition within the kidney and involvement of the classic pathway. The source of the immune complexes is unknown in the idiopathic form of the disease

Silva, FG (1992) Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in Pathology of the Kidney. ed. by R.H. Heptinstall, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, pp. 477-535 Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group Dense deposit disease in children: prognostic value of clinical and pathologic indicators Diagnosis • Primary diagnosis: Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal Ig deposits • Pattern of injury: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis • Additional features: -focal global glomerulosclerosis (30%), moderate (40%) tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, - moderate arteriosclerosis and moderate hyaline.

RPGN requires rapid diagnosis and immediate initiation of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent irreversible kidney damage. Etiology. Type I: anti-GBM glomerulonephritis: anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Go odpasture syndrome) Type II: immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. IgA nephropathy; Membranoproliferative. Glomerulonephritis is often part of a multisystem disorder. Edema is a sign of severe or chronic disease. A renal biopsy is the test for definitive diagnosis, although it is not required in all patients. Treating the underlying disorder and managing hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria i.. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a common pattern of glomerular injury in monoclonal gammopathy, but has only rarely been associated with solid organ tumors, mainly lung, renal, gastric, breast, and prostate. There have been two reported cases of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, although the association may be coincidental

The relation between treatment and prognosis of childhood

Prognosis. Glomerulonephritis includes a range of immune-mediated disorders that cause inflammation within the glomerulus and other compartments of the kidney. Glomerulonephritis results from a variety of immune and inflammatory mechanisms. It is often described as primary, when there is no associated disease elsewhere, or secondary, when. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (or its synonym mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis) of immune complex type or type I (MPGN-I) is a form of glomerular injury that has established association with hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections [5]. We describe a case of DVI who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria and impaired. What is Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis? Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis is a rare progressive glomerulonephritis (type of kidney disease). Community Statistics 4 community members. Prognosis of Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis has not been added yet Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a form of glomerulonephritis caused by an abnormal immune response. Deposits of antibodies build up in a part of the kidneys called the glomerular basement membrane. Symptoms Symptoms may include any of the following: Blood in the urine Changes in mental status such as decreased alertness.

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, nephritic nephrotic syndrome. This presentation is made to teach aboudt approach to glomerulonephritis in children. Final diagnosis of this case was membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Fellow Pediatric Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi A diagnosis of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was made and the patient was started on methylprednisolone (64 mg/day, tapering down to 16 mg/day maintenance dose) and perindopril 10 mg/day. Unfortunately the response to treatment was not optimal, leakage of ascitic fluid from the umbilicus developed, and further deterioration of the. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is histologically characterized by intense glomerular hypercellularity (mainly due to mesangial proliferation) and diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane with the appearance of 'double contours'. Two distinct histological forms have been identified - Type I MPGN and Type II MPGN Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis MPGN chaken Dense deposit disease § Prognosis is worse than type I § Clinical remissions <5% § Worse in adults than in children § 50% turn to ESRD in 10 years from the onset Brenner&Rector's: The Kidney 10th Edition 49

BACKGROUND: To clarify the clinical manifestations of pediatric complement component C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), we retrospectively evaluated differences in the clinicopathological findings and prognosis between C3GN and immune-complex-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (IC-MPGN) Background:Visceral leishmaniasis is an important opportunistic disease in HIV-positive patients. The information available on the effects of such co-infection in the kidney is limited. We describe a patient with HIV/leishmania coinfection who developed nephrotic syndrome and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. As far as we know, only 2 cases of this nephropathy in HIV/leishmania. However, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon condition in diabetic patients. To our knowledge, there has been no case yet of MPGN, except in a child with type 1 DM. We present an unusual case of a 27-year-old woman who had type 2 DM with MPGN, as confirmed via a kidney biopsy